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Oxygen is an important element in the atmosphere because of its necessity in sustaining life on the planet earth. We breathe atmospheric air that goes into lungs where oxygen mixes up with blood stream and reaches every cell of your body. It is required for oxidizing food inside of every cell of the body to release energy and heat for enabling you to perform the daily tasks of life. It is obvious that oxygen is vital for use in hospitals. It is used in medical applications including COPD, cyanosis, shock, severe hemorrhage, carbon monoxide poisoning, major trauma, cardiac/respiratory arrest. It is also used for administering support, respiratory therapy and anaesthetic purposes.

Oxygen is produced through using an industrial production method. There are two types of techniques pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and cryogenic distillation. PSA oxygen plant functions by using two vessels that are filled with Zeolite Molecular sieve adsorbers. The compressed air passes through one of the adsorbers while the molecular sieve adsorbs nitrogen. The process makes oxygen go through the adsorber and is collected as a product as gas. When nitrogen overflows the adsorber the inlet flow is changed to the second adsorber. The first adsorber starts functioning by eliminating nitrogen by keeping pressure down. This pressure is repeated between high pressure and low pressure.

Cryogenic distillation technique is also used extensively for producing oxygen for hospitals. It functions by taking atmospheric air and separating into oxygen and nitrogen by liquefaction. After being compressed the air is sent to a cleanup system where impurities such as hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and moisture are removed. Now, it is moved to the heat exchanger where the air cooled to extreme low temperature. Here, the air is moved to a high pressure distillation column where oxygen is separated from nitrogen and other trace gases. Oxygen is formed at the top of the distillation column, where it is collected and moved into a low pressure distillation column where it is further distilled to commercial specifications.